Kalsiyum oksit varlığında teknik hegzaklorosiklohegzan’nın mekanokimyasal parçalanması

Volkan Pelitli, Uğur Kurt, Oltan Canlı
96 11

Öz


Bu çalışmada, kalsiyum oksit (CaO) varlığında gezegen hareketli bilyalı değirmen kullanılarak teknik hegzaklorosiklohegzan’nın (t-HCH) mekanokimyasal parçalanma verimi araştırılmıştır. Kalıntı içeriğindeki t-HCH miktarı elektron dedektörlü gaz kromatografi (GC-µECD) ile analiz edilmiş ve 6 saat sonunda parçalanma verimi %99.7 olarak bulunmuştur. Pantaklorosiklohegzen, tetraklorobenzen, triklorobenzen, diklorobenzen ve monoklorobenzen gibi parçalanma ürünleri Headspace Gaz kromatografisi-kütle spektrometresi (GC-MS) ile tespit edilmiş ve temel parçalanma yolu önerilmiştir. Sonuçlar son ürünlerin amorf karbon ve suda çözünür klorür olduğunu göstermiştir. Çalışma CaO’nun t-HCH’nin parçalanmasında etkin olarak kullanılabileceğini göstermiştir.


Anahtar kelimeler


Hekzaklorosiklohegzan, mekanokimyasal proses, parçalama, kalsiyum oksit

Tam metin:

PDF


Referanslar


Geyikçi, F., Büyükgüngör, H., Monitoring of organochlorine pesticides in the surface waters from Mid-Black Sea Region, Turkey. Environ. Monit. Assess., 173, 127–137, 2011.

Lopez, F.J., Pitarch, E., Egea, S., Beltran, J., Hernandez, F., Gas chromatographic determination of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in human fluids using solid phase microextraction. Analytica. Chimica. Acta., 433, 217–226, 2001.

Galt, R.E., Reconceptualizing Farmers as Pesticide Users: From Homo Economics to Complex Subjectivities. Antipode, 45(2), 336-356, 2012.

Jeyaratnam, J., Health problems of pesticide usage in the third world. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 42, 505-506, 1985.

Li, Y.F., Bidleman, T.F., Barrie, L.A., Global hexachlorocyclohexane use trends and their impact on the arctic atmospheric environment. Geophysical Research Letters, 25(1), 39-41, 1998.

Metcalf, R.L., The Mode of Action of Organic Insecticides. National Research Council, Washington D.C., ABD, 1948.

Willet, K.L., Utrich, E.M., Hites, R.A., Differential toxicity and environmental facts of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32, 2197–2207, 1998.

Vijgen, J., The legacy of lindane HCH isomer production: A global overview of residue management, formulation and disposal. International HCH and Pesticide Association, 2006.

Jürgens, H.J., Roth, R., Case Study and Proposed Decontamination Steps of the Soil and Groundwater Beneath a Closed Herbicide Plant in Germany. Chemosphere, 18, 1163-1169, 1989.

Güler, G.O., Çakmak, Y.S., Dağlı, Z., Aktümsek, A., Özparlak, H., Organochlorine pesticide residues in wheat from Konya region, Turkey. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48, 1218-122, 2010.

Erkmen, B., Yerli, S.V., Erkakan, F., Kolonkaya, D., Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in water and sediment samples from Lake Manyas, Turkey. J. Environ Biol, 34 (2), 171-6, 2013.

Erdoğrul, Ö., Levels of selected pesticides in honey samples from Kahramanmaraş, Turkey. Food Control, 18 (7), 866-871, 2007.

Erdoğrul, Ö., Covaci, A., Schepens, P., Levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish species from Kahramanmaras, Turkey. Environmental International, 31, 703-711, 2005.

Coelhan, M., Strohmeier, J., Barlas, H., Organochlorine levels in edible fish from the Marmara Sea, Turkey. Environment International, 32, 775-780, 2006.

Çok, İ., Mazmanci, B., Mazmanci, M.A., Turgut, C., Henkelmann, B., Schramm, K.W., Analysis of human milk to assess exposure to PAHs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in the vicinity Mediterranean city Mersin, Turkey. Environmental International, 40: 63-69, 2012.

US National Library of Medicine (NIH). https://chem.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/319-84-6. Erişim tarihi Mart 22, 2017.

UNEP, Report of the Conference of the parties of the Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants on the work of its fourth meeting. In: Conference of the Parties of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants Fourth Meeting, İtalya, 2009.

Ben-Michael, E., Grauer, F., Raphael, C., Sahm, Z., Richter, E.D., Organochlorine insecticides and PCB residues in fat tissues of autopsied trauma victims in Israel: 1984 to 1986. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol., 18 (4), 297-303, 1999.

Tange, L., Drohmann, D., Waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics with brominated flame retardants—from legislation to separate treatment-thermal process. Polym. Degrad. Stab., 88, 35-40, 2005.

Tomio, S., Masamitsa, T., Development of Fluidized Bed Gasification and Swirl-flow Melting Process for Municipal Solid Wastes. The University of Seoul Press., 1-10, 2002.

Ecke, H., Sakanakura, H., Matsuto, T., State-of-the-art treatment processes for municipal solid incineration residues in Japan. Waste Manag. Res., 18, 41-51, 2000.

Hagenmaier, H., Kraft, M., Brunner, H., Catalytic effects of fly ash from incineration facilities on the formation and decomposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Environ. Sci. Technol., 21, 1080-1084, 1987.

Tiernan, T.O., Wagel, D.J., VanNess, G.F., Treatment of complex chemical wastes with the base catalyzed decomposition (BCD) process. Organohalogen Compd., 8, 289-292, 1992.

Shi, W., Zhang, J., Photodegradation mechanism and its influential factors of PVC, Chin. Synth. Resin Plast., 23, 80-84, 2006.

Huang, L., Li, X.D., PCDD/Fs control technologies in the municipal solid waste incineration processes. Power Syst. Eng., 21, 5-7, 2005.

Gao, J., Distribution, microbial effects and bioremediation of PCBs in typical polluted agricultural soils in the Yangtze River Delta. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Zhejiang, China, 2005.

Zhang, T., Cheng, X.X., Progress of the research on persistent organic pollutants. Scitech Inf. Dev. Econ., 17, 206-208, 2007.

Fernández-Bertran, J. F., Mechanochemistry: An Overview, Pure Appl. Chem., 71(4), 581-586, 1999.

Cagnetta, G., Liu, H., Zhang, K., Huang, J., Wang, B., Deng, S., Wang, Y., Yu, G., Mechanochemical conversion of brominated POPs into useful oxybromides: a greener approach, Nature, Scientific Reports, 6:28394, 2016.

Boldyrev, V.V., and Tkácová, K., Mechanochemistry of solids: past, present, and prospects, J. Mater. Synth. Process, 8(2-4), 121-132, 2000.

Wieczorek,-Ciurowa, K., Gamrat, K., Mechanochemical syntheses as an example of gren processes. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 88, 213-217, 2007.

Heinicke, G., Tribochemistry, Akademic-Verlag, Almanya, 1984.

Wei, Y., Yan, J., Lu, S., Li, X., Mechanochemical decomposition of pentachlorophenol by ball milling. J. Environ. Sci., 21, 1761–1768, 2009.

Rowlands, S.A., Hall, A.K., Mccormick, P.G., Street, R., Hart, R.J., Ebell, G.F., Donecker, P., Destruction of toxic metals. Nature, 367, 223-223, 1993.

Fujiwara, Y., Isobe, T., Senna, M., Tanaka, J., Effects of Reduced Coordination Number for Ca on the Electron Redistribution during Ca-O-Si Bridge Bonding from CaO or Ca(OH)2 and SiO2. J. Phys. Chem. A., 103, 9842-9846, 1999.

Suresh, P., Balamurugan, S., Balamurugan, D., Electronic and optical studies of CaO with oxygen defects: A DFT approach. Der Pharma Chemica, 6(4), 292-297, 2014.

Tanaka, I., Oba, F., Tatsumi, K., Kunisu, M., Nakano, M., Adachi, H., Theoretical Formation Energy of Oxygen-Vacancies in Oxides. Materials Transactions, 43 (7), 1426-1429, 2002.

Chen, H., Zhou, S., Han, Z., Jiang, Y., Yu, H., Zhou, X., Jiang, R., Liu, X., Li, X., A copper-based sorbent with oxygen-vacancy defects from mechanochemical reduction for carbon disulfide absorption. Journal Materials Chemistry A, 4, 17207-17214, 2016.

Khoa, H.X., Bae, S., bae, S., Kim, B., Kim, J.S., Planetary Ball Mill Process in Aspect of Milling Energy. Journal of Korean Metallurgy Institute, 21 (2), 155-164, 2014.

Fritsch GmbH. http://www.fritsch.cn/fileadmin/Redakteur/Downloads/Reports_milling/Environment/Planetary_Mono_Mill_PULVERISETTE_6_premium_line.pdf. Erişim tarihi Mayıs 23, 2017.

Fritsch GmbH, http://www.fritsch-international.com/sample-preparation/milling/planetary-mills/details/product/pulverisette-6-classic-line/downloads/. Erişim tarihi Mayıs 23, 2017.

Butyagin, P.Y., Structural Disorder and Mechanochemical Reactions in Solids. Russian Chemical Reviews, 53, 1769-1789, 1984.

Balaz, P., Achimovicova, M., Balaz, M., Billik, P., Cherkezova-Zheleva, Z., Criado, J.M., Delogu, F., Dutkova, E., Gaffet, E., Gotor, F.J., Kumar, R., Mitov, I., Rojac, T., Senna, M., Streletskii, A., Wieczorek-Ciurowa, K., Hallmarks of mechanochemistry: from nanoparticles to technology. Chem. Soc. Rev., 42, 7571-7637, 2013.

Huang, B., Isse, A.A., Durante, C., Wei, C., Gennaro, A., Electrocatalytic properties of transition metals toward reductive dechlorination of polychloroethanes. Electrochimica Acta, 70, 50-61, 2012.

Spataru, T., Fernandez, F., Sista, W.J., Spataru, P., Povar, I., Disposal of Poisonous Organic Halides by Using the Electrochemical Method: DFT Simulation, Chemistry Journal of Moldova, 11(2), 93-98, 2016.

DeVor, R., Knighton, K.C., Aitken, B., Maloney, P., Holland, E., Talalaj, L., Elsheimer, S., Clausen, C.A., Geiger, C.L., Mechanism of the degradation of individual PCB congeners using mechanically alloyed Mg/Pd in methanol. Chemosphere, 76 (6), 761-766, 2009.

Tanaka, Y., Zhang, Q., Saito, F., Mechanochemical Dechlorination of Trichlorobenzene on Oxide Surfaces. J. Phys. Chem. B., 107, 11091-11097, 2003.

Braga, D., Maini, L., Grepioni, F., Mechanochemical preparation of co-crystals, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 7638-7648, 2013.

Deng, S., Kang, S., Feng, N., Zhu, J., Yu, B., Xie, X., Chen, J., Mechanochemical mechanism of rapid dechlorination ofhexachlorobenzene, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 333, 116-127, 2017.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.