Elyaf takviyeli polimer kompozit malzemelerin farklı delme yöntemleri ile delinmesinde kesme performansının değerlendirilmesi: Bir araştırma

Şenol BAYRAKTAR
270 44

Öz


Elyaf takviyeli polimer kompozit (ETPK) malzemeler, yüksek mukavemet ve sönümleme, hafiflik, düşük termal genleşme gibi mühendislik özelliklerinden dolayı uzay ve havacılık sanayisinde cıvatalı, perçinli ve pimli bağlantılarda yaygınlıkla kullanılmaktadır. Ancak, metallere göre daha karmaşık yapıya sahip oldukları için delme işlemi esnasında delik giriş ve çıkışında delaminasyon, matris fazında bozulma ve elyaf kopması gibi etkenler, bu malzemelerin sahip olduğu mühendislik özelliklerinin azalmasına sebep olmaktadır. Bu malzemeler, uzay ve havacılık sektöründe özellikle gövde-kanat bağlantıları için titanyum ve alüminyum gibi metaller ile birlikte istiflenerek delinmektedir. İstiflenmiş malzemelerin herbiri, farklı özelliklere sahip olduğundan, delme işlemi esnasında hassas işlenmiş yüzey kalitesi için optimum kesme şartlarının belirlenmesi gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmada, ETPK malzemelerin yekpare ve metaller ile istiflenmiş halde delinmesi ile ilgili literatürde yapılan çalışmalar araştırılarak elde edilen bulgular bir arada sunulmuştur.         


Anahtar kelimeler


ETPK/Metal istifleme, Delme, Delaminasyon, Delik yüzey kalitesi

Tam metin:

PDF


Referanslar


Bayraktar Ş., Turgut Y., Elyaf Takviyeli Polimer Kompozit Malzemelerin Talaşlı Şekillendirilebilirliği, 1. Uluslararası Plastik & Kauçuk Teknolojileri Sempozyumu ve Ürün Sergisi, Ankara-Türkiye, 9-18, 29-31 Mayıs, 2013.

Bayraktar Ş., Turgut Y., Elyaf Takviyeli Polimer Kompozit Malzemelerin Delinmesi Üzerine Bir Araştırma, 3.Ulusal Talaşlı İmalat Sempozyumu, Ankara-Türkiye, 153-158, 4-5 Ekim, 2012.

Krishnamoorthy A., Boopathy S.R., Palanikumar K., Davim J.P., Application of grey fuzzy logic for the optimization of drilling parameters for CFRP composites with multiple performance characteristics, Measurement, 45(5), 1286-1296, 2012.

Khashaba U., Delamination in drilling GFR-thermoset composites, Compos. Struct, 63(3-4), 313-327, 2004.

Liu D.F., Tang Y.J., Cong W.L., A review of mechanical drilling for composite laminates, Compos. Struct, 94(4), 1265-1279, 2012.

Qi Z., Zhang K., Li Y., Liu S., Cheng H., Critical thrust force predicting modeling for delamination-free drilling of metal-FRP stacks, Compos. Struct, 107, 604-609, 2014.

Xu J., Mkaddem A., El Mansori M., Recent advances in drilling hybrid FRP/Ti composite: A state-of-the-art review, Compos. Struct, 135(1), 316-338, 2016.

Brinksmeier E., Janssen R., Drilling of multi-layer composite materials consisting of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP), titanium and aluminum alloys, CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol, 51(1), 87-90, 2002.

Xu J., El Mansori M., Cutting modeling using cohesive zone concept of titanium/CFRP composite stacks, Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf, 16(10), 2091-2100, 2015.

Denkena B., Boehnke D., Dege J.H., Helical milling of CFRP-titanium layer compounds, CIRP J. Manuf. Sci. Technol, 1(2), 64-69, 2008.

Xu J., El Mansori M., Experimental study on drilling mechanisms and strategies of hybrid CFRP/Ti stacks, Compos. Struct, 157, 461-482, 2016.

Wern C.W., Ramulu W., Shukla A., Investigation of stresses in the orthogonal cutting of fiber-reinforced plastics, Exp. Mech, 36(30), 33-41,1996.

Zitoune R., Krishnaraj V., Collombet F., Le Roux S., Experimental and numerical analysis on drilling of carbon fibre reinforced plastic and aluminium stacks, Compos. Struct, 146, 148-158, 2016.

Soutis C., Fibre reinforced composites in aircraft construction, Prog. Aerosp. Sci, 41 (2), 143-151, 2005.

Gay D., Hoa S.V., Tsai S.W., Composite materials: design and applications, CRC Press, New York, U.S.A., 2013.

Lee S.C., Jeong S.T., Park J.N., Kim S.J., Cho G.J., Study on drilling characteristics and mechanical properties of CFRP composites, Acta Mech. Solida Sin, 21(4), 364-368, 2008.

Ho-Cheng H., Dharan C.K.H., Delamination during drilling in composite laminates, J. Eng. for Ind, 112(3), p.236-239, 1990.

Durão L.M.P., Gonçalves D.J.S., Tavares J.M.R.S., Albuquerque V.H.C., Marques A.T., Drilling process of composite laminates - a tool based analysis, 14th European conference on composite materials (ECCM14), Budapest-Hungary, 1-10, 7-10 June, 2010.

Persson E., Eriksson I., Zackrisson L., Effect of hole machining defects on strength and fatigue life of composite laminates, Compos. Part A: Appl. Sci & Manuf, 28(2), 141-151, 1997.

Xu J., An Q., Chen M., A comparative evaluation of polycrystalline diamond drills in drilling high-strength T800S/250F CFRP, Compos. Struct, 117, 71-82, 2014.

Karnik S.R., Gaitonde V.N., Rubio J.C., Correia A.E., Abrão A.M., Davim J.P., Delamination analysis in high speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) using artificial neural network model, Mater. Des, 29(9), 1768-1776, 2008.

Kim D., Influence of consolidation process on the drilling performance and machinability of PIXA-M and PEEK thermoplastic composites, J. Thermoplast. Compos. Mater, 18(3), 195-217, 2005.

Hocheng H., Tsao C.C., Effects of special drill bits on drilling-induced delamination of composite materials, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf, 46(12-13), 1403-1416, 2006.

Tsao C.C., Investigation into the effects of drilling parameters on delamination by various step-core drills, J. Mater. Process. Technol, 206(1-3), 405-411, 2008.

Singh I., Bhatnagar N., Viswanath P., Drilling of uni-directional glass fiber reinforced plastics: experimental and finite element study, Mater. Des, 29(2), 546-553, 2008.

Tsao C.C., Hocheng H., Effect of eccentricity of twist drill and candle drill on delamination in drilling of composite materials, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf, 45(2), 125-130, 2005.

Zhang L.B., Wang L.J., Liu X.Y., A mechanical model for predicting critical thrust forces in drilling composite laminates, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B: J. Eng. Manuf, 215(2), 135-146, 2001.

Khashaba U.A., Seif M.A., Elhamid M.A., Drilling analysis of chopped composites, Compos. Part A: Appl. Sci. Manuf, 38(1), 61-70, 2007.

Gaitonde V.N., Karnik S.R., Campos R.J., Esteves C.A., Abrao A.M., Paulo D.J., Analysis of parametric influence on delamination in high- speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic composites, J. Mater. Process. Technol, 203(1-3), 431-438, 2008.

Durão L.M.P., Gonçalves D.J., Tavares J. M.R., Albuquerque V.H.C., Vieira A.A., Marques A.T., Drilling tool geometry evaluation for reinforced composite laminates, Compos Struct, 92(7), 1545-1550, 2010.

Shyha I.S., Aspinwall D.K., Soo S.L., Bradley S., Drill geometry and operating effects when cutting small diameter holes in CFRP, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf, 49(12), 1008-1014, 2009.

Lazar M.B., Xirouchakis P., Experimental analysis of drilling fiber reinforced composites, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf, 51(12), 937-946, 2011.

Krishnaraj V., Prabukarthi A., Ramanathan A., Elanghovan N., Kumar M.S., Zitoune R., Davim J.P., Optimization of machining parameters at high speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates, Compos. Part B: Eng, 43(4), 1791-1799, 2012.

Ismail S.O., Dhakal H. N., Popov I., Beaugrand J.,Comprehensive study on machinability of sustainable and conventional fibre reinforced polymer composites, Eng. Sci. Technol. Int. J, 19(4), 2043-2052, 2016.

Makhdum F., Jennings L.T., Roy A., Silberschmidt V.V., Cutting forces in ultrasonically assisted drilling of carbon fibre-reinforced plastics, In Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 382(1), 1-6, 2012.

Biermann D., Iovkov I., Investigations on the thermal workpiece distortion in MQL deep hole drilling of an aluminium cast alloy, CIRP Ann. Manuf Technol, 64(1), 85-88, 2015.

Ilyuschenko A,P,, Feldshtein E.E., Lisovskaya Y.O., Markova L.V., Andreyev M.A., Lewandowski A., On the properties of PVD coating based on nanodiamond and molybdenum disulfide nanolayers and its efficiency when drilling of aluminium alloy, Surf. Coat. Technol, 270, 190-196, 2015.

Gökkaya H. Nalbant M., Kesme Hızının Yığıntı Katmanı Ve Yığıntı Talaş Oluşumu Üzerindeki Etkilerinin Sem İle İncelenmesi, Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University, 22(3), 481-488, 2007.

Sekmen M., Günay M., Şeker U., Alüminyum Alaşımlarının İşlenmesinde Kesme Hızı ve Talaş Açısının Yüzey Pürüzlülüğü, Yığıntı Talaş ve Yığıntı Katmanı Oluşumu Üzerine Etkisi, J Polytech, 18(3), 141-148, 2015.

Shyha I.S., Soo S.L., Aspinwall D.K., Bradley S., Perry R., Harden P., Dawson S., Hole quality assessment following drilling of metallic-composite stacks, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf, 51(7), 569-578, 2011.

Sanchez J.M., Rubio E., Alvarez M., Sebastien M.A., Marcos M., Microstructural characterisation of material adhered over cutting tool in the dry machining of aerospace aluminium alloys, J. Mater. Process. Technol, 164-165, 911-918, 2005.

Zitoune R., Krishnaraj V., Almabouacif B., Collombet F., Sima M., Jolin A., Influence of machining parameters and new nano-coated tool on drilling performance of CFRP/aluminium sandwich, Compos. Part B: Eng, 43(3), 1480-1488, 2012.

Zitoune R., Krishnaraj V., Collombet F., Study of drilling of composite material and aluminium stack, Compos. Struct, 92(5), 1246-1255, 2010.

Pecat O., Brinksmeier E., Tool wear analyses in low frequency vibration assisted drilling of CFRP/Ti6Al4V stack material, Procedia CIRP, 14, 142-147, 2014.

Abdelhafeez A.M., Soo S.L., Aspinwall D.K., Dowson A., Arnold D., Burr formation and hole quality when drilling titanium and aluminium alloys, Procedia CIRP, 37, 230-235, 2015.

Kim D., Ramulu M., Drilling process optimization for graphite/bismaleimide–titanium alloy stacks, Compos. Struct, 63(1), 101-114, 2004.

Pecat O., Brinksmeier E., Low damage drilling of CFRP/titanium compound materials for fastening, Procedia CIRP, 13, 1-7, 2014.

Park K.H., Beal A., Kwon P., Lantrip J., Tool wear in drilling of composite/titanium stacks using carbide and polycrystalline diamond tools, Wear, 271(11), 2826-2835, 2011.

Cheng H., Zhang K., Wang N., Luo B., Meng Q. A novel six-state cutting force model for drilling-countersinking machining process of CFRP-Al stacks, Int. J. of Adv. Manuf. Technol, 1-14, 2016, doi:10.1007/s00170-016-9236-6.

Isbilir O., Ghassemieh E., Comparative study of tool life and hole quality in drilling of CFRP/titanium stack using coated carbide drill, Mach. Sci. Technol, 17(3), 380-409, 2013.

Nan C., Wu D., Gao Y., Ma X., Chen K., Influence of metal chips on drilling quality of carbon fiber reinforced plastic and titanium stacks, 5th Annu. IEEE Int. Conf. Cyber Technol. Autom. Control Intell. Syst, Shengyang-China, 204-1209, 8-12 June, 2015.

Wang B., Gao H., Cao B., Zhuang Y., Zhao Z. Mechanism of damage generation during drilling of carbon/epoxy composites and titanium alloy stacks, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B: J. Eng. Manuf, 228(7), 698-706, 2014.

Ramulu M., Branson T., Kim D., A study on the drilling of composite and titanium stacks, Compos. Struct, 54(1), 67-77, 2001.

Wang C.Y., Chen Y.H., An Q.L., Cai X.J., Ming W.W., Chen M., Drilling temperature and hole quality in drilling of CFRP/aluminum stacks using diamond coated drill, Int. J. Prec. Eng. Manuf, 16(8), 1689-1697, 2015.

Montoya M., Calamaz M., Gehin D., Girot F., Evaluation of the performance of coated and uncoated carbide tools in drilling thick CFRP/aluminium alloy stacks, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol, 68(9-12), 2111-2120, 2013.

Zhang L., Liu Z., Tian W., Liao W., Experimental studies on the performance of different structure tools in drilling CFRP/Al alloy stacks, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol, 81(1-4), 241-251, 2015.

Kim K.S., Lee D.G., Kwak Y.K., Namgung S., Machinability of carbon fiber-epoxy composite materials in turning, J. Mater. Process. Technol, 32(3), 553-570, 1992.

Lantrip J., New tools needed, Cutting Tool Engineering, 60, 72-84, 2008.

Fujiwara J., Nagaura R., Tashiro T., Drilling of CFRP/Ti6Al4V stack board, Int. J. Autom. Technol, 7(3), 426-432, 2013.

Ferreira J.R., Coppini N.L., Miranda G.W.A., Machining optimisation in carbon fibre reinforced composite materials, J. Mater. Process. Technol, 92-93, 135-140, 1999.

Uhlmann E., Lachmund U., Brücher M., Wear behavior of HFCVD-diamond coated carbide and ceramic tools, Surf. Coat. Technol, 131(1-3), 395-399, 2000.

Wika K.K., Sharman A.R.C., Goulbourne D., Ridgway K.,. Impact of number of flutes and helix angle on tool performance and hole quality in drilling composite/titanium stacks, SAE Technical Paper, Doi: 10.4271/2011-01-2744, 2011.

SenthilKumar M., Prabukarthi A., Krishnaraj V., Study on tool wear and chip formation during drilling carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP)/titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) stacks, Procedia Eng, 64, 582-592, 2013.

Ahmad J., Machining of polymer composites, Springer, Boston, 2009.

Ashrafi S.A., Sharif S., Farid A.A., Yahya M.Y., Performance evaluation of carbide tools in drilling CFRP-Al stacks, J. Compos. Mater, 48(17), 2071-2084, 2014.

Kim D., Ramulu M., Pedersen W., Machinability of titanium/graphite hybrid composites in drilling, Trans. North Am. Manuf. Res. Inst. SME, 33, 445-452, 2005.

Bosco M.A.J., Palanikumar K., Prasad B.D., Velayudham A., Analysis on influence of machining parameters on thrust force in drilling GFRP-armor steel sandwich composites, J. Compos. Mater, 49(13), 1539-1551, 2015.

Kuo C.L., Soo S.L., Aspinwall D.K., Thomas W., Bradley S., Pearson D., M’Saoubi R., Leahy W., The effect of cutting speed and feed rate on hole surface integrity in single-shot drilling of metallic-composite stacks, Proc. CIRP, 13, 405-410, 2014.

Bayraktar Ş., Turgut Y., Investigation of the cutting forces and surface roughnes in milling carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite material, Mater. Technol, 50(4), 591-600, 2016.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.