MİKROALGLERDEN YENİLENEBİLİR BİYOYAKIT ÜRETİMİ

Harun Elcik, Mehmet Çakmakcı
134 35

Öz


Enerji ihtiyacının büyük bir bölümünü karşılayan fosil yakıt rezervleri hızla tükenmektedir ve bu yakıtların çevresel zararları her geçen gün artmaktadır. Bu sebeple, tüm gelişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülkeler gibi ülkemiz de yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarının kullanımına yönelmiştir. Bu kapsamda ülkemizde, yenilenebilir enerji yasası çıkarılarak yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarının ekonomiye kazandırılması, sürdürülebilir enerji üretiminin desteklenmesi ve çevrenin korunması amaçlanmıştır. Son dönemde önemi artan yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarından bir tanesi de biyokütle enerjisidir. Biyokütle enerji kaynağı olarak, ana bileşenleri karbonhidrat bileşikleri olan bitkisel ve hayvansal kökenli tüm organik maddeler kullanılabilmektedir. Bu enerji kaynakları içerisinde mikroalgler, yüksek fotosentetik etkinlikleri, yüksek biyokütle üretimleri ve hızlı çoğalmaları gibi avantajlarıyla biyoyakıt üretimi için umut verici görülmektedir. Mikroalglerden, biyokimyasal yöntemler ile elektrik, etanol, hidrojen, metan ve biyoyağ üretilebildiği gibi termokimyasal yöntemler kullanılarak singaz, biyoyağ ve elektrik üretilebilmektedir. Bu derleme makalesinde, mikroalglerin izolasyonu, mikroalgal biyokütle üretimi, biyokütlenin hasadında kullanılan yöntemler ve mikroalglerin yenilenebilir biyoyakıtlar için ham madde kaynağı olarak kullanılabilirliği ele alınmıştır.


Anahtar kelimeler


Mikroalgler; kültivasyon; fotobiyoreaktörler; hasat; biyoyakıt

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