TAM ELEKTRİKLİ ARAÇLAR İÇİN ÖZGÜN BİR ENERJİ YÖNETİM SİSTEMİ UYGULAMASI

Türev Sarıkurt, Abdulkadir Balıkçı
476 73

Öz


Tam elektrikli araçlar (TEA) tüm gücünü elektriksel kaynaklardan alan elektrikli araçlardır. Fosil yakıt kullanılmaması sebebiyle en temiz ulaşım alternatifidir ve gelecekte daha da yaygınlaşması beklenmektedir. TEA’ların en belirgin dezavantajları menzillerinin kısa olması, yüksek performans istenen durumlarda yetersiz kalmaları ve batarya ömürlerinin kısalığıdır. Bu çalışmada özgün bir batarya-batarya hibrit enerji sistemi tanıtılmaktadır. Sistem modülerlik ve uyumluluk esaslarına bağlı olarak hücre seviyesinde enerji yönetim stratejisine sahiptir. Ayrıca önerilen sistem ile aktif batarya gerilim dengelemesi de yapılmaktadır. Sistem basit bir kontrol şeması içeren yarı aktif hibridizasyon stratejisine sahiptir ve yol bilgisinden bağımsız olarak verimli bir enerji yönetimi sağlanmaktadır. Çalışmada sistem ve kontrol stratejisi detaylı olarak aktarılmıştır. Hem batarya dengeleme hem de enerji yönetimi özelliklerinin gösterilebilmesi için farklı senaryolar altında sistemin benzetimi yapılmıştır. Sistemin bataryaların çalışma süresini yaklaşık 2 kat uzattığı benzetim sonuçları ile desteklenmiş, enerji transferi esnasında sistemin verimliliğinin % 95’in üzerinde olduğu deneysel sonuçlar ile gösterilmiştir.

Anahtar kelimeler


Lityum-İyon bataryalar; elektrikli araçlar; tam elektrikli araçlar; batarya gerilim dengelenmesi; enerji yönetim sistemi.

Tam metin:

PDF


Referanslar


Sezer İ., Theoretical investigation of the effects of diesel fuel, biodiesel fuel and their blends on internal combustion engines, Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University, 31 (4), 799-812, 2016.

Balbaşı M., Şahin A., Symmetrical supercapacitor application with low activated carbon content, Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University, 30 (4), 683-692, 2015.

Nazri G.A. ve Pistoia G., Lithium Batteries, Science and Technology, Springer Science & Business, New York, A. B. D., 2008.

Obreja V.V.N., On the performance of supercapacitors with electrodes based on carbon nanotubes and carbon activated material-A review, Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, 40 (7), 2596-2605, 2008.

Ceylan M., Sarıkurt T., Balıkçı A., A novel lithium-ion polymer battery model for hybrid/electric vehicles, 23rd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), İstanbul-Türkiye, 366-369, 01-04 Haziran, 2014.

Sarıkurt T., Ceylan M., Balıkçı A., An analytical battery state of health estimation method, 23rd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), İstanbul-Türkiye, 1605-1609, 01-04 Haziran, 2014.

Köhler U., Kümpers J., Ullrich M., High performance nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries, J. Power Sources, 105(1), 139-144, 2002.

Winter M., Brodd R.J., What are batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors?, Chem Rev. , 104(10), 4245-4269, 2004.

Sarıkurt T., Ceylan M., Balıkçı A., A hybrid battery model and state of healt h estimation method for lithium-ion batteries, IEEE International Energy Conference (ENERGYCON), Dubrovnik-Hırvatistan, 1349-1356, 13-15 Mayıs, 2014.

Kılıç A., Kapucu S., Design and construction of a modular reconfigurable robot module OMNIMO, Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University, 31 (3), 521-530, 2016.

Paganelli G., Ercole G., Brahma A., Guezennec Y., Rizzoni, G., General supervisory control policy for the energy optimization of charge-sustaining hybrid electric vehicles, JSAE Review, 22 (4), 511-518, 2001.

Johnson V., Wipke K., Rausen, D., HEV Control Strategy for Real-Time Optimization of Fuel Economy and Emissions, SAE Transactions, 109 (3), 1677-1690, 2000.

Sciaretta A., Guzzella L., Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles, IEEE Control Syst. 27 (2), 60-70, 2007.

Koot M., Kessels J.T.B.A., de Jager B., Heemels, W.P.M.H., van den Bosch, P.P.J. Steinbuch, M., Energy Management Strategies for Vehicular Electric Power Systems, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 54(3), 771-782, 2005.

Lin C., Pengl H., Grizzle J.W., A Stochastic Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles, American Control Conference, Boston-A.B.D, 4710-4715, 30 Haziran-2 Temmuz 2004

Kuperman A., Aharon, I., Battery-ultracapacitor hybrids for pulsed current loads: A review, Renew Sustain Energy Rev., 15(2), 981-992, 2011.

Penella M.T., Member S., Gasulla M., Runtime Extension of Low-Power Wireless Sensor Nodes Using Hybrid-Storage Units, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 59(4), 857-865, 2010.

Dougal R.A., Liu S., White R.E., Power and Life Extension of Battery – Ultracapacitor Hybrids, IEEE Trans. Components Packag. Technol., 25(1), 120-131., 2002.

Kuperman A., Aharon I., Kara A., Malki, S., A frequency domain approach to analyzing passive battery–ultracapacitor hybrids supplying periodic pulsed current loads, Energy Convers. Manag., 52(2), 3433-3438, 2011.

Gao L., Dougal R.A., Liu S., Power enhancement of an actively controlled battery/ultracapacitor hybrid, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 20(1), 236-243, 2005.

Govindaraj A., Lukic S.M., Emadi A., A novel scheme for optimal paralleling of batteries and ultracapacitors, IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, ECCE, 1410-1416, 2009.

Khaligh A., Li Z., Battery, Ultracapacitor, Fuel Cell, and Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Electric, Hybrid Electric, Fuel Cell, and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: State of the Art, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 59(6), 2806-2814, 2010.

Ortúzar M., Moreno J., Dixon J., Ultracapacitor-based auxiliary energy system for an electric vehicle: Implementation and evaluation, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 54(4), 2147-2156, 2007.

Camara M.B., Gualous H., Gustin F., Berthon, A., Design and new control of DC/DC converters to share energy between supercapacitors and batteries in hybrid vehicles, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 57(5), 2721-2735, 2008.

Gao Y., Ehsani M., Parametric design of the traction motor and energy storage for series hybrid off-road and military vehicles, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 21(3), 749-755, 2006.

Amjadi Z., Williamson S.S., Power-Electronics-Based Solutions for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Storage and Management Systems, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 57(2), 2010.

Wang L., Li H., Maximum fuel economy-oriented power management design for a fuel cell vehicle using battery and ultracapacitor, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 46(1), 1011-1020, 2010.

Sarikurt T,. Balikci A., A novel battery system for electric vehicles, Progress in Clean Energy, Volume 2 , Novel Systems and Applications, Cilt 2, Editörler Dinçer, İ., Çolpan, C.O., Ezan, M.A., Springer International Publishing, New York, 29-40, 2015.

Altemose G., Hellermann P., Mazz T., Active cell balancing system using an isolated share bus for Li-Ion battery management: Focusing on satellite applications, IEEE Long Island Systems, Applications and Technology Conference, LISAT, New York-A.B.D. 6 Mayıs, 2011.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.