KARAYOLU İLE TEHLİKELİ MADDE TAŞIMACILIĞI İÇİN COĞRAFİ BİLGİ SİSTEMİ DESTEKLİ ÇEVRESEL RİSK ANALİZİ

Serhan KARABULUT, Ebru Vesile ÖCALIR-AKÜNAL
2.595 872

Öz


Karayolu ile tehlikeli madde taşımacılığı hem birçok farklı aktörü içinde barındırması hem de her birinin farklı bir amacı bulunması sebebiyle özel bir taşıma türüdür. Bu çalışmada, akaryakıtların karayolu ile taşınması esnasında çevresel risklerin değerlendirilebilmesi için bir çevresel risk analiz modeli geliştirilmiştir. Geliştirilen model ile kaza durumunda olumsuz etkilenen çevresel öğeler (su ortamı, toprak ortamı ve özellikli alanlar) analiz edilebilmektedir. Modeli uygulama ve geliştirme aşamasında büyük ölçekli uygulamaları mümkün kılmak için Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemi (CBS)’den destek alınmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında tehlikeli madde türü olarak akaryakıt (benzin, motorin) ve LPG’nin karayolu ile taşıması incelenmiştir. Analitik Hiyerarşi Prosesi (AHP) kullanılarak model kapsamında incelenen her bir çevresel kriterin öncelik ağırlıkları bulunarak İzmir, Manisa, Aydın, Muğla, Denizli karayolu ağında modellerin uygulanmasına geçilmiştir. Uygulamada belirlenen kriterlere göre en uygun güzergâhın tespit edilmesi sağlanmıştır.


Anahtar kelimeler


Risk analizi, Analitik Hiyerarşi Prosesi (AHP), tehlikeli madde, akaryakıt, CBS

Tam metin:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17341/gummfd.92491

Referanslar


Castillo, J.E.A., Route Optimization For Hazardous Materials Transport, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, Urban Planning and Land Administration, Enschede, The Netherlands, 2004.

Alışan, D., “Tehlikeli Kimyasal Maddelerin Taşınması ve Depolanması”, Tehlikeli Kimyasalların Yönetimi Sempozyumu, Ankara, 257-266, 8-9 Ocak 2009.

USDOT (U.S. Department of Transportation), USDOC (U.S. Department of Commerce), Hazardous Materials Transportation 2007 Commodity Flow Survey, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, United States, 2010.

Saccomanno, F., Chan, A., “Economic Evaluation of Routing Strategies for Hazardous Road Shipments”, Transportation Research Record, No 1020,12–18, 1985.

Pijawka, K.D., Foote, S., Soesilo, A., Scanlon, R.D., Cantilli, E.J., “Improving Transportation of Hazardous Materials Through Risk Assessment and Routing”, Transportation Research Board, No PB-86-112471/XAB; TRB/TRR-1020, 1985.

Batta, R., Chiu, S.S., “Optimal Obnoxious Paths on a Network: Transportation of Hazardous Materials”, Operations Research, Cilt 36, No 1, 84–92, 1988.

ReVelle, C., Cohon, J., Shobrys, D., “Simultaneous Siting and Routing in The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes”, Transportation Science, Cilt 25, No 2, 138–145, 1991.

Abkowitz, M., Lepofsky, M., Cheng, P., “Selecting Criteria for Designating Hazardous Materials Highway Routes”, Transportation Research Record, No 1333, 30–35, 1992.

Sivakumar, R.A., Batta, R., Karwan, M.H., “A Network-Based Model for Transporting Extremely Hazardous Materials”, Operations Research Letters, Cilt 13, No 2, 85–93, 1993.

Sivakumar, R.A., Batta, R., “The Variance-Constrained Shortest Path Problem”, Transportation Science, Cilt 28, No 4, 309–316, 1994.

Erkut, E., Verter, V., “Modeling of Transport Risk for Hazardous Materials”, Operations Research, Cilt 46, No 5,625–642, 1998.

Bonvicini, S., Leonelli, P., Spadoni, G., “Risk Analysis of Hazardous Materials Transportation: Evaluating Uncertainty by Means of Fuzzy Logic”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Cilt 62, No 1, 59–74, 1998.

Erkut, E., Ingolfsson, A., “Catastrophe Avoidance Models for Hazardous Materials Route Planning”, Transportation Science, Cilt 34, No 2, 165–179, 2000.

Barilla, D., Leonardi, G., Puglisi, A., “Risk Assessment for Hazardous Materials Transportation”, Applied Mathematical Sciences, Cilt 3, No 46, 2295-2309, 2009.

Jassbi, J., Makvandi, P., “Route Selection Based on Soft MODM Framework in Transportation of Hazardous Materials”, Applied Mathematical Sciences, Cilt 4, No: 63, 3121-3132, 2010.

Lovett, A.A., Parfitt, J.P., Brainard, J.S., “Using GIS in Risk Analysis: A Case Study of Hazardous Waste Transport”, Risk Analysis, Cilt 17, No 5, 625–633, 1997.

Zhang, J.J., Hodgson, J., Erkut, E., “Using GIS to Assess The Risks of Hazardous Materials Transport in Networks”, European Journal of Operational Research, Cilt 121, No 2, 316–329, 2000.

Verter, V., Kara, B.Y., “A GIS-based Framework for Hazardous Materials Transport Risk Assessment”, Risk Analysis, Cilt 21, No 6, 1109–1120, 2001.

Ümit, H., Kara, B.Y., “Büyük Ölçekli Bir Tehlikeli Madde Taşımacılığının Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri Tabanlı Analizi: Shell Türkiye Örneği”, Yöneylem Araştırma Dergisi, No 15, 2003.

Huang, B., “GIS-based Route Planning for Hazardous Material Transportation”, Journal of Environmental Informatics, Cilt 8, No 1, 49-57, 2006.

Monprapussorn, S., Watts, D. J., Banomyong, R., “Sustainable Hazardous Materials Route Planning with Environmental Consideration”, International Conference on the Role of Universities in Hands-On Education, Rajamangala University of Technology, Lanna, Chiang-Mai, Thailand, 24-29 Ağustos 2009.

Wessberg, N., Molarius R., Seppala, J., Koskela, S., Pennanen J., “Environmental Risk Analysis For Accidental Emissions”, Journal of Chemical Health & Safety, Cilt 15, No 1, 24-31, 2008.

Topuz, E., Talinli, İ., Aydın, E., “Integration of Environmental and Human Health Risk Assessment for Industries Using Hazardous Materials: A Quantitative Multi Criteria Approach for Environmental Decision Makers”, Environment International, 37: 393–403, 2011.

Li, R., Leung, Y., Huang, B., Lin, H., “A Genetic Algorithm for Multiobjective Dangerous Goods Route Planning”, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Cilt 27, No 6, 1073–1089, 2013.

Petrol Sanayi Derneği, 2010 Yılı Sektör Raporu, PETDER, İstanbul, 2010.

Alp, E., “Risk-based Transportation Planning Practice Overall Methodology and A Case Example”, INFOR, Cilt 33, No 1, 4–19, 1995.

Erkut, E., Tjandra, S. A., Verter, V., “Hazardous Materials Transportation”, Handbook in OR & MS, Elsevier B.V, Editör: C. Barnhart and G. Laporte, Cilt 14, No 9, 539-621, 2007.

Sherali, H.D., Brizendine, L.D., Glickman, T.S., Subramanian, S., “Low-probability Highconsequence Considerations in Routing Hazardous Materials Shipments”, Transportation Science, No 31, 237–251, 1997.

Erkut, E., Ingolfsson, A., “Transport Risk Models for Hazardous Materials”, Operations Research Letters, Cilt 33, No 1, 81–89, 2005.

Ak, R., Bozkaya, B., “A Proposed Risk Model and a GIS Framework for Hazardous Materials Transportation”, IEEE Engineering Management Conference, IEMC Europe, 2008.

Huang, B., “A GIS-AHP Method for HAZMAT Route Planning with Consideration of Security”, Environmental Informatics Archives, No 2, 818-830, 2004.

Huang, B., Cheu, R.L., Liew, Y.S., “GIS and Genetic Algorithms for HAZMAT Route Planning with Security Considerations”, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Cilt 18, No 8, 769–787, 2004.

Ruifang, M., “Environmental Risk Assessment Model on Dangerous Goods in Logistics”, Logistics for Sustained Economic Development, 2026-2032, 2010.

Kara, B.Y., Erkut, E., Verter, V., “Accurate Calculation of Hazardous Materials Transport Risks”, Operations Research Letters, Cilt 31, No 4, 285-292, 2003.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Emergency Response Guidebook, PHMSA, Washington DC, USA, 2008.

Gunasekera, M.Y., Edwards, D.W., “Estimating the Environmental Impact of Catastrophic Chemical Releases to the Atmosphere: An Index Method for Ranking Alternative Chemical Process Routes”, Trans Institution of Chemical Engineers, No 81, 463–474, 2003.

Andersson, A.S., Tysklind, M., Fangmark, I., “A Method to Relate Chemical Accident Properties and Expert Judgements in Order to Derive Useful Information for the Development of Environment-Accident Index”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, No 147, 524–533, 2007.

Rygnestad, H., “Integrating Environmental Economics and Policy Analyses in a Geographical Information System”, SJFI, 4, 2000.

Liu, K. F. R., Liang, H. H., Yeh, K., Chen, C. W., “A Qualitative Decision Support for Environmental Impact Assessment Using Fuzzy Logic”, Journal of Environmental Informatics, Cilt 13, No 2, 93-103, 2009.

Ashtakala, B., Member, ASCE, Eno, L. A., “Minimum Risk Route Model for Hazardous Materials”, Journal of Transportation Engineering, September/October, 1996.

Saaty, T.L., “The Seven Pillars of the Analytic Hierarchy Process”, Proceedings of the 15th Int’l Conf on Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM), Springer, NY, 1-15, 2001.

Saaty T.L., “Rank From Comparisons and From Ratings in the Analytic Hierarchy/ Network Processes”, European Journal of Operational Research, Cilt 168, No 2, 2006.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.