HETEROJEN EŞ-ZAMANLI TOPLA-DAĞIT ARAÇ ROTALAMA PROBLEMİ: MATEMATİKSEL MODELLER VE SEZGİSEL BİR ALGORİTMA

Barış KEÇECİ, Fulya ALTIPARMAK, İmdat KARA
2.936 679

Öz


Lojistik yönetiminde en önemli operasyonel kararlardan birisi müşterilere hizmet verecek araç rotalarının belirlenmesidir. Araç Rotalama Problemi (ARP), bir depodan müşterilerin dağıtım (toplama) taleplerini karşılayacak en uygun rotaların belirlenmesi olarak tanımlanabilir. Gerçek hayat lojistik uygulamalarında, filoda bulunan araçlar farklı özelliklerde olabilirler. Ayrıca müşterilerden/taşınanlardan kaynaklı gereklilikler de farklı özellikte araç kullanımı zorunluluğunu ortaya çıkarabilir. Bunun yanısıra firmalar, mamul, yarı mamul ve hammaddelerin tersine akışının yönetimini de hem ekonomik getirisi hem de yasal ve çevresel yükümlülüklerinden dolayı daha fazla önemsemektedirler. Bu makalede, heterojen araç filosunun bulunduğu ve müşterilerin dağıtım ve toplama taleplerinin eşzamanlı gerçekleştiği durumların birlikte dikkate alındığı bir ARP türü üzerinde çalışılmıştır. Bu problem Heterojen Eşzamanlı Topla-Dağıt Araç Rotalama Problemi (HETD-ARP) olarak adlandırılmıştır. HETD-ARP, toplam maliyeti enküçükleyen araç rotalarının ve herbir rotada kullanılan araç tipinin belirlenmesi olarak tanımlanabilir. Problem için polinom sayıda kısıta sahip akış tabanlı bir matematiksel model önerilmiştir. HETD-ARP, NP-zor problemler sınıfında olduğundan dolayı makul sürelerde orta boyutlu problemlere bile en iyi çözümü bulmak zordur. Bu nedenle bu makalede orta ve büyük boyutlu HETD-ARP’nin çözümü için basit bir kurucu sezgisel algoritma önerilmiştir. Bu algoritma, kaynaklarda ARP için önerilen Clarke-Wright Tasarruf (CWT) algoritmasının HETD-ARP için uyarlanmış halidir. Önerilen matematiksel modelin ve sezgisel algoritmanın etkinliği test problemleri üzerinde incelenmiştir.

Anahtar kelimeler


Heterojen filo, eşzamanlı topla-dağıt, araç rotalama problemi, karma tamsayılı matematiksel modelleme, sezgiseller, Clarke-Wright tasarruf algoritması

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17341/gummfd.48863

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